Description (Total 131662 Papers Found)

We propose a general framework for multi-context reasoning which allows us to combine arbitrary monotonic and nonmonotonic logics. Nonmonotonic bridge rules are used to specify the information flow among contexts. We investigate several notions of equilibrium representing acceptable belief states for our multi-context systems. The approach generalizes the heterogeneous monotonic multi-context systems developed by F. Giunchiglia and colleagues as well as the homogeneous nonmonotonic multi-context ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Two-stage revision remains the gold standard in the treatment of infected knee arthroplasty. Lately, good long-term results of direct exchange arthroplasty have been reported. The purpose of this literature review is to compare the clinical outcome achieved with one-stage revision and two-stage revision with different types of spacers. METHODS A thorough systematic review of literature was undertaken to idenepsy reports on the treatment alternatives. Papers written in En ...
Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction performance, which is one of the most important goals in microarray-based applications, has not been addressed. This paper uses a broad selec ...
This paper aimed to explore descriptive epidemiological features of pancreatic cancer in Japan, by examining secular trends in mortality (1950-1995) and incidence rates (1975-1991), and also to discuss background factors possibly ascribable to the recent variation in mortality and incidence rates. The age-adjusted mortality rate (adjusted by the 1985 model population) has increased by approximately 9-fold in both males (from 1.4 to 12.5 per 100,000 population) and females (from 0.8 to 6.8 per 10 ...
Web Services are popular solutions that have been in recent years to implement software in every business domain. They provide an effective way to reuse functionality, which reduces development time and cost, and increases software reliability. Software testing is a key issue of Web Services development in order to ensure quality of services. Software testing aims to discover faults or defects in software to determine where its behaviors do not correspond with software requirements or test case ...
Formal methods and reasoning techniques can be useful tools for the representation and analysis of security policies and access control procedures. This paper presents a logical approach to representing and evaluating role-based access control (RBAC) policies, using description logics and a proof method, called tableaux. We propose a new variation of the RBAC model with a classification mechanism for objects. The key feature supported is the ability to model object classes, and class hierarchies ...
Optics has played a key role in the rapidly developing field of molecular imaging. The spectroscopic nature and high-resolution imaging capabilities of light provide a means for probing biological morphology and function at the cellular and molecular levels. While the use of bioluminescent and fluorescent probes has become a mainstay in optical molecular imaging, a large number of other optical imaging modalities exist that can be included in this emerging field. In vivo imaging technologies suc ...
  • Teemu Roos,
  • 2008 IEEE Information Theory Workshop
  • 2008
Minimum description length (MDL) model selection, in its modern NML formulation, involves a model complexity term which is equivalent to minimax/maximin regret. When the data are discrete-valued, the complexity term is a logarithm of a sum of maximized likelihoods over all possible data-sets. Because the sum has an exponential number of terms, its evaluation is in many cases intractable. In the continuous case, the sum is replaced by an integral for which a closed form is available in only a few ...
This Contrast enhancement is frequently referred to as one of the most important issues in image processing. Histogram equalization (HE) is one of the common methods used for improving contrast in digital images. Histogram equalization (HE) has proved to be a simple and effective image contrast enhancement technique. However, the conventional histogram equalization methods usually result in excessive contrast enhancement, which causes the unnatural look and visual artifacts of the processed imag ...
Complexity has been understood in different ways since its (re)introduction into scientific discourse. Therefore, instead of proposing a definition of complexity, we group the existing explanations about it into two distinct categories: descriptive and perceived complexity. The main features of these categories are described and how they arise as the result of the adoption of contrasting epistemologies is discussed. These categories together with their implications for our doing in the world are ...
Immediate post-training intraperitoneal administration of the GABA-antagonist picrotoxin (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) significantly enhanced retention of CD1 mice tested 24 h after training in an inhibitory avoidance task. Administration of picrotoxin prior to the retention test did not affect the retention performance of mice given post-training injections of either saline or picrotoxin. These findings indicate that the memory-enhancing effects of post-training administration of picrotoxin are not state- ...
Background: Findings about the effects of -glucan on serum lipoproteins are conflicting. Objective: The study investigated the effects of -glucan from oat bran in bread and cookies (study 1) and in orange juice (study 2) on serum lipoproteins in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: In study 1, 48 subjects (21 men, 27 women) received for 3 wk control bread and cookies rich in wheat fiber. For the next 4 wk, by random assignment, 23 subjects continued to consume the control products, and ...
Exchanging knowledge via the web might lead to the use of different representation languages because different applications could take advantage of this knowledge. In order to function properly, the interoperability of these languages must be established on a semantic ground (i.e., based on the models of the representations). Several solutions can be used for ensuring this interoperability. We present a new approach based on a set of knowledge representation languages partially ordered with rega ...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the Family Health Conversations from the perspective of families living with chronic illness. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN AND JUSTIFICATION This study has a descriptive qualitative design using semi-structured evaluative family interviews and conventional content analysis. ETHICAL ISSUES AND APPROVAL The study was approved by a Regional Ethical Review Board. RESEARCH METHODS Family Health Conversations were used as an intervention with 14 families living with chro ...
The objective of this study is to assess the understanding of routine offer of HIV testing among women using antenatal care (ANC) services in a rural African district. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Murewa district, Zimbabwe, among women consecutively enrolled during their first ANC visit in 10 health centres offering prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services including routine offer of HIV testing. Ninety-three (64%) of the 146 respondents had rece ...
STUDY DESIGN Systematic literature review. OBJECTIVE A systematic review was designed to answer 3 primary research questions: (1) What is the most useful classification system for surgical and nonsurgical decision-making with regard to thoracolumbar (TL) spine injuries? (2) For a TL burst fracture with incomplete neurologic deficit, what is the optimal surgical approach and stabilization technique? (3) Is complete disruption of the posterior ligamentous complex an indication for surgical inter ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence and effect of overactive bladder (OAB) on healthcare-seeking behavior, mental health, and generic and condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) in older adults. DESIGN Secondary analysis of the U.S. sample of the Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (EpiLUTS) study-a population-based, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand four hundred eighty-five men and 2,877 women aged 65 and older. ...
Technology is spreading in our everyday world, and digital interaction beyond the screen, with real objects, allows taking advantage of our natural manipulative and communicative skills. Tangible gesture interaction takes advantage of these skills by bridging two popular domains in Human-Computer Interaction, tangible interaction and gestural interaction. In this paper, we present the Tangible Gesture Interaction Framework (TGIF) for classifying and guiding works in this field. We propose a clas ...
Subjects with fasting and/or postprandial plasma glucose levels that are higher than those in normal subjects but less than those in patients with manifest NIDDM are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This association between glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease was first hypothesized in the 1950s but was not substantiated until the results of several long-term prospective studies became available. The results suggest that there is not a continuously variable associatio ...
BACKGROUND Dabigatran etexilate, a new thrombin inhibitor, has been shown to be comparable to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there is a limited body of evidence on the efficacy and safety of using dabigatran among patients undergoing AF catheter ablation. OBJECTIVE A random effects meta-analysis was performed of controlled trials comparing dabigatran and warfarin in paroxysmal/persistent AF patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS Data sources included Med ...
This study, conducted at one University College in Norway, describes nursing students' perceptions of nursing as a theoretical subject and as a function. A descriptive/explorative design was selected. Thirty students from the first year and 30 students from the third year wrote down their perceptions in response to four open-ended questions. Fifteen students from each year (n = 30) were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed. According to the results, the content of the subjec ...
This study was conducted to gain opinions about euthanasia from nurses who work in intensive care units. The research was planned as a descriptive study and conducted with 186 nurses who worked in intensive care units in a university hospital, a public hospital, and a private not-for-profit hospital in Adana, Turkey, and who agreed to complete a questionnaire. Euthanasia is not legal in Turkey. One third (33.9%) of the nurses supported the legalization of euthanasia, whereas 39.8% did not. In so ...
A User Interface Description Language (UIDL) is a formal language used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in order to describe a particular user interface independently of any implementation. Considerable research effort has been devoted to defining various meta-models in order to rigorously define the semantics of such a UIDL. These meta-models cover different aspects: context of use (user, platform, environment), task, domain, abstract user interface, concrete user interface, usability (inclu ...
STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe polysomnographic parameters and their clinical correlates in a referred sample of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS This was a retrospective medical record review of 55 consecutive children aged 2-18 years with SCD (hemoglobin [Hb] SS and Hb SC genotypes) undergoing polysomnography for evaluation of sleep disordered breathing. Polysomnography values were compared between SCD genotypes, 4 age groups, and adenotonsillectomy status using descriptive and ...
This was a cross sectional, descriptive study designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of pregnant women concerning the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in Anambra state, South-East Nigeria. A well structured questionnaire was self administered to 700 volunteer pregnant women aged 17-45 years, recruited during routine antenatal visits in randomly selected hospitals in the study area, between January 2012 and March 2013, to extract information on biodata and use o ...
The identification of victims involved in mass fatality incidents has become an increasingly important issue nowadays, and identification of unknown individuals is an important aspect in criminal cases and Disaster Victim Identification scenarios. Therefore, the sex estimation is one of the most important biological attributes towards establishing personal identity. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that metric sex determination methods of the skeleton are population-specific due to ...
Simple schizophrenia is a sometimes controversial diagnosis. Here we review the concept with particular reference to its history in diagnostic systems. Using an illustrative real case of a 25-year-old man, we show that there is a need to retain this diagnostic category, which may fit better within proposed dimensional (psychomotor poverty, disorganisation and reality distortion) rather than categorical classifications of schizophrenia. Symptoms of the disorder may be better revealed by functiona ...
Accelerated nursing programs have proliferated in recent years, attracting adult learners with varied backgrounds and experience into the profession of nursing. Learner adaptation to and successful completion of nursing programs delivered in an accelerated format require that students use self-regulatory learning strategies to focus, organize, integrate, and retain knowledge derived from classroom and clinical sources. The purpose of this descriptive, exploratory study was to examine the presenc ...
Efforts were made to match services using IOPE and nonfunctional attributes of the web service. Results of these service matching are not realistic as the matching's done by analyzing description of the web service. In order to realize automatic Service matching accuracy there is a need to adopt web2.0 social participation about the web services into service matching modules to achieve desired result. In this paper we propose a new approach is proposed which use web2.0 social participation on we ...
Emerging applications such as Web 2.0 and linked data has significantly contributed to the volume of data on the Web. Web 2.0 applications are dynamic in nature, and require frequent and real time update. However, substantial progress in the management of RDF data is focusing on speeding up query processing on the so called static data, such as the linked data. Approaches that are focusing on the static data tend to implement heavy indexing or decomposed techniques that cause updating to be inef ...
We have investigated the in-field current transport property in BaHfO<sub>3</sub> doped GdBa<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7 - δ</sub> coated conductors in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Significant improvement of in-field critical current <i>I</i><sub>c</sub> was observed, e.g., <i>I</i><sub>c</sub>@77 K, 3 T = 93 A/cm-w, <i>I</i><sub>c</sub>@20& ...
Affiliate marketing is a marketing-oriented online marketing channel. Via partner programs between advertisers and publishers advertising contacts are established. Resulting transactions are measured and based on performance. The present work uses stored data to gain insights into the underlying structure of customers registered with an affiliate network. A descriptive analysis captures the data structure with publishers as underlying research object. Then the statistical analysis is separated i ...
The demographic explosion of persons over 60 years of age is a reality in developed and developing countries alike. There is evidence that research on aging and nutrition in Third World countries is growing and developing. Specific research programs, and the linking of these programs in timely multicenter efforts, promise both valuable descriptive research for the benefit of national populations and comparative insights that will help us to learn more, collectively, about the intrinsic nature of ...
Electrically driven molecular light emitters are considered to be one of the promising candidates as single-photon sources. However, it is yet to be demonstrated that electrically driven single-photon emission can indeed be generated from an isolated single molecule notwithstanding fluorescence quenching and technical challenges. Here, we report such electrically driven single-photon emission from a well-defined single molecule located inside a precisely controlled nanocavity in a scanning tunne ...
BACKGROUND Rates of fertility, population growth, and maternal deaths in Nigeria are among the highest in the world, with an estimated 4% of all births being unwanted and 7% mistimed. These are caused mainly by nonuse, inappropriate choice, and difficulty in accessing contraceptive commodities. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing the choice and sources of contraceptive options among market women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. METHODS This was a question ...
BACKGROUND Regular physical exercise is one of the lifestyle modification general measures to control the blood pressure (BP) of patients with hypertension. Globally, hypertension is considered a non-communicable disease (NCD), as well as a chronic condition of lifestyle, that contributes to the mortality rate caused by complications of cardiovascular burden of diseases. In South Africa, NCDs account for nearly 40% of adult deaths, with a high prevalence among black people in urban areas such as ...
The developments in the integrated circuits technology led to the emergence of highly efficient and reliable DC-DC converters in wide range of power (few Watts to kilowatts). The low power application demands the use of flyback converter to implement the converter. The need of the higher efficiency at low power level requires the use of new improved rectification technology to reduce the rectification losses. The rectification losses are reduced by using the Synchronous rectification technique. ...
This is the first detailed clinical and histopathologic report of a tubulo-papillary adenoma (so-called nephrogenic adenoma) arising in the renal pelvis of a 35-year-old woman. The tumor showed a polypoid exophytic growth and consisted of closely packed tubular formations lined by cuboidal to low columnar cells with an admixture of delicate papillary structures. Its benign nature was indicated by the lack of cellular atypias, the extremely low proliferative activity and the absence of invasivene ...
General purpose processing elements are designed to attain high overall performance across a wide range of applications with different workload characteristics. This greatly compromises the performance of the execution of individual applications. Moreover, with the commercial advent of chip-multiprocessors, the designspace of processing elements has greatly increased, rendering the performance of fixed architectures in the execution of arbitrary workloads more suboptimal than ever. The gist of t ...
OBJECTIVES To describe the information needs of a group of Australians with asthma and the extent to which their needs had been met. METHODS A self-administered survey was completed by people with asthma either presenting at community pharmacies or registered with a medical research institute database. The survey questions were developed based on a review of the literature, and included questions regarding participants' information needs about their asthma, their sources of asthma information ...
Active fault diagnosis (AFD) can be used to improve the diagnosability of faults by injecting a suitably designed input into a process. When faults are described as discrete switches between linear systems with uncertainties boundedwithin zonotopes, an optimal open-loop input guaranteeing diagnosis within a specified time horizon can be computed efficiently by solving a Mixed Integer Quadratic Program (MIQP). In this article, the constrained zonotope (CZ) set representation recently developed by ...
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to determine the states of health care personnel, working at 112 emergency stations in the province of Artvin, to encounter with regarding forensic cases and determine their practices aimed at recognizing, protecting, and reporting the evidences that may affect the forensic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive study was conducted with nurses and emergency medicine technicians working at 112 emergency stations in Artvin between January 2013 a ...
Necrotising fasciitis is insidiously advancing soft tissue infection, characterized by widespread fascial necrosis. One of the most common conditions encountered in the clinical practice and which required clinical suspicion in patients who have less resistance to these infections. Especially in diabetic patients who are more prone for such infection due to low immunity and other reasons like early detection of these infections helps these patients to have a better recovery by aggressive surgica ...
In order to understand the mechanisms of tumor promotion, the relationship between the early effects induced by promoters and the enhancement of transformation was investigated using transformable, promoter-sensitive mouse clone Balb/3T3 A31-1-1. Emphasis was placed on the measurement of all parameters in the same clonal line under the same conditions. The potentials of various derivatives of phorbol ester, indole alkaloid, and polyacetate for enhancing transformation in 3-methylcholanthrene-ini ...
BACKGROUND Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow is a problematic condition that affects a fair number of young athletes. One treatment option is the use of osteochondral autografts, which are commonly taken from donor sites on the less weightbearing surfaces of the knee. PURPOSE To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the cartilage depths of sites in the knee and elbow that are commonly used as donor and recipient sites to optimize depth matching for osteochondral autograft p ...
We report a high-speed inverter circuit based on novel enhancement-mode InP metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The devices exhibit an extrinsic transconductance as high as 320 mS/mm at room temperature. Utilizing electro-optic sampling we have measured the propagation delay of the field-effect transistors to be as short as 15 ps/stage at room temperature. These are the highest transconductance and the shortest propagation delay measured with a field-effect transistor on an I ...
Ambulance personnel often meet people in a crisis situation that requires a readiness to act, and which takes for granted a broad knowledge in caring, together with an ability to size up the circumstances in each separate incident. The afflicted individual's first contact with a medic in an emergency situation is very often ambulance personnel and this first meeting can involve incidents that may radically change the existing state of things for the ill or injured and, maybe, even for near relat ...
BACKGROUND Subclavian artery angioplasty has been traditionally performed via the transfemoral approach. Transradial access is becoming increasingly used for coronary as well as for certain peripheral vascular beds. We describe our experience with transradial access for subclavian artery stenting. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of subclavian artery interventions from 2007 to 2009 at our institution. Demographics, clinical data, lesion and procedural characteristics were collected. ...